# How the ECDSA algorithm works

To popular demand, I have decided to try and explain how the ECDSA algorithm works. I’ve been struggling a bit to understand it properly and while I found a lot of documentation about it, I haven’t really found any “ECDSA for newbies” anywhere. So I thought it would be good to explain in simple terms how it works so others can learn from my research. I have found some websites that explain the basic principles but nowhere near enough to actually understand it, others that explains things without any basics, making it incomprehensible, and others that go way too deep into the the mathematics behind it.

ECDSA stands for “Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm”, it’s used to create a digital signature of data (a file for example) in order to allow you to verify its authenticity without compromising its security. Think of it like a real signature, you can recognize someone’s signature, but you can’t forge it without others knowing. The ECDSA algorithm is basically all about mathematics.. so I think it’s important to start by saying : “hey kids, don’t slack off at school, listen to your teachers, that stuff might be useful for you some day!” 🙂 But these maths are fairly complicated, so while I’ll try to vulgarize it and make it understandable for non technical people, you will still probably need some knowledge in mathematics to understand it properly. I will do this in two parts, one that is a sort of high level explanation about how it works, and another where I dig deeper into its inner workings to complete your understanding. Note however that I’ve just recently learned this stuff, so I’m definitely not an expert on the matter.

So the principle is simple, you have a mathematical equation which draws a curve on a graph, and you choose a random point on that curve and consider that your point of origin. Then you generate a random number, this is your private key, you do some magical mathematical equation using that random number and that “point of origin” and you get a second point on the curve, that’s your public key. When you want to sign a file, you will use this private key (the random number) with a hash of the file (a unique number to represent the file) into a magical equation and that will give you your signature. The signature itself is divided into two parts, called R and S. In order to verify that the signature is correct, you only need the public key (that point on the curve that was generated using the private key) and you put that into another magical equation with one part of the signature (S), and if it was signed correctly using the the private key, it will give you the other part of the signature (R). So to make it short, a signature consists of two numbers, R and S, and you use a private key to generate R and S, and if a mathematical equation using the public key and S gives you R, then the signature is valid. There is no way to know the private key or to create a signature using only the public key.

Alright, now for the more in depth understanding, I suggest you take an aspirin right now as this might hurt! 😛

Let’s start with the basics (which may be boring for people who know about it, but is mandatory for those who don’t) : ECDSA uses only integer mathematics, there are no floating points (this means possible values are 1, 2, 3, etc.. but not 1.5..),  also, the range of the numbers is bound by how many bits are used in the signature (more bits means higher numbers, means more security as it becomes harder to ‘guess’ the critical numbers used in the equation), as you should know, computers use ‘bits’ to represent data, a bit is a ‘digit’ in binary notation (0 and 1) and 8 bits represent one byte. Every time you add one bit, the maximum number that can be represented doubles, with 4 bits you can represent values 0 to 15 (for a total of 16 possible values), with 5 bits, you can represent 32 values, with 6 bits, you can represent 64 values, etc.. one byte (8 bits) can represent 256 values, and 32 bits can represent 4294967296 values (4 Giga).. Usually ECDSA will use 160 bits total, so that makes… well, a very huge number with 49 digits in it…

ECDSA is used with a SHA1 cryptographic hash of the message to sign (the file). A hash is simply another mathematical equation that you apply on every byte of data which will give you a number that is unique to your data. Like for example, the sum of the values of all bytes may be considered a very dumb hash function. So if anything changes in the message (the file) then the hash will be completely different. In the case of the SHA1 hash algorithm, it will always be 20 bytes (160 bits). It’s very useful to validate that a file has not been modified or corrupted, you get the 20 bytes hash for a file of any size, and you can easily recalculate that hash to make sure it matches. What ECDSA signs is actually that hash, so if the data changes, the hash changes, and the signature isn’t valid anymore.

Now, how does it work? Well Elliptic Curve cryptography is based on an equation of the form :

y^2 = (x^3 + a * x + b) mod p

First thing you notice is that there is a modulo and that the ‘y‘ is a square. This means that for any x coordinate, you will have two values of y and that the curve is symmetric on the X axis. The modulo is a prime number and makes sure that all the values are within our range of 160 bits and it allows the use of “modular square root” and “modular multiplicative inverse” mathematics which make calculating stuff easier (I think). Since we have a modulo (p) , it means that the possible values of y^2 are between  0 and p-1, which gives us p total possible values. However, since we are dealing with integers, only a smaller subset of those values will be a “perfect square” (the square value of two integers), which gives us N possible points on the curve where N < p (N being the number of perfect squares between 0 and p). Since each x will yield two points (positive and negative values of the square-root of y^2), this means that there are N/2 possible ‘x‘ coordinates that are valid and that give a point on the curve. So this elliptic curve has a finite number of points on it, and it’s all because of the integer calculations and the modulus. Another thing you need to know about Elliptic curves, is the notion of “point addition“. It is defined as adding one point P to another point Q will lead to a point S such that if you draw a line from P to Q, it will intersect the curve on a third point R which is the negative value of S (remember that the curve is symmetric on the X axis). In this case, we define R = -S to represent the symmetrical point of R on the X axis. This is easier to illustrate with an image : So you can see a curve of the form y^2 = x^3 + ax + b (where a = -4 and b = 0), which is symmetric on the X axis, and where P+Q is the symmetrical point through X of the point R which is the third intersection of a line going from P to Q. In the same manner, if you do P + P,  it will be the symmetrical point of R which is the intersection of the line that is a tangent to the point P.. And P + P + P is the addition between the resulting point of P+P with the point P since P + P + P can be written as (P+P) + P.. This defines the “point multiplication” where k*P is the addition of the point P to itself k times… here are two examples showing this :

Here, you can see two elliptic curves, and a point P from which you draw the tangent, it intersects the curve with a third point, and its symmetric point it 2P, then from there, you draw a line from 2P and P and it will intersect the curve, and the symmetrical point is 3P. etc… you can keep doing that for the point multiplication. You can also already guess why you need to take the symmetric point of R when doing the addition, otherwise, multiple additions of the same point will always give the same line and the same three intersections.

One particularity of this point multiplication is that if you have a point R = k*P, where you know R and you know P, there is no way to find out what the value of ‘k‘ is. Since there is no point subtraction or point division, you cannot just resolve k = R/P. Also, since you could be doing millions of  point additions, you will just end up on another point on the curve, and you’d have no way of knowing “how” you got there. You can’t reverse this operation, and you can’t find the value ‘k‘ which was multiplied with your point P to give you the resulting point R.

This thing where you can’t find the multiplicand even when you know the original and destination points is the whole basis of the security behind the ECDSA algorithm, and the principle is called a “trap door function“.

Now that we’ve handled the “basics”, let’s talk about the actual ECDSA signature algorithm. For ECDSA, you first need to know your curve parameters, those are a, b, p, N and G. You already know that ‘a‘ and ‘b‘ are the parameters of the curve function (y^2 = x^3 + ax + b), that ‘p‘ is the prime modulus,  and that ‘N‘ is the number of points of the curve, but there is also ‘G‘ that is needed for ECDSA, and it represents a ‘reference point’ or a point of origin if you prefer. Those curve parameters are important and without knowing them, you obviously can’t sign or verify a signature. Yes, verifying a signature isn’t just about knowing the public key, you also need to know the curve parameters for which this public key is derived from.

So first of all, you will have a private and a public key.. the private key is a random number (of 20 bytes) that is generated, and the public key is a point on the curve generated from the point multiplication of G with the private key. We set ‘dA‘ as the private key (random number) and ‘Qa‘ as the public key (a point), so we have : Qa = dA * G (where G is the point of reference in the curve parameters).

So how do you sign a file/message ? First, you need to know that the signature is 40 bytes and is represented by two values of 20 bytes each, the first one is called R and the second one is called S.. so the pair (R, S) together is your ECDSA signature.. now here’s how you can create those two values in order to sign a file.. first you must generate a random value ‘k‘ (of 20 byes), and use point multiplication to calculate the point P=k*G. That point’s x value will represent ‘R‘. Since the point on the curve P is represented by its (x, y) coordinates (each being 20 bytes long), you only need the ‘x‘ value (20 bytes) for the signature, and that value will be called ‘R‘. Now all you need is the ‘S‘ value.

To calculate S, you must make a SHA1 hash of the message, this gives you a 20 bytes value that you will consider as a very huge integer number and we’ll call it ‘z‘. Now you can calculate S using the equation :

S = k^-1 (z + dA * R) mod p

Note here the k^-1 which is the ‘modular multiplicative inverse‘ of k… it’s basically the inverse of k, but since we are dealing with integer numbers, then that’s not possible, so it’s a number such that (k^-1 * k ) mod p is equal to 1. And again, I remind you that k is the random number used to generate R, z is the hash of the message to sign, dA is the private key and R is the x coordinate of k*G (where G is the point of origin of the curve parameters).

Now that you have your signature, you want to verify it, it’s also quite simple, and you only need the public key (and curve parameters of course) to do that. You use this equation to calculate a point P :

P=  S^-1*z*G + S^-1 * R * Qa

If the x coordinate of the point P is equal to R, that means that the signature is valid, otherwise it’s not.

Pretty simple, huh? now let’s see why and how… and this is going to require some mathematics to verify :

We have :

P = S^-1*z*G + S^-1 * R *Qa

but Qa = dA*G, so:

P = S^-1*z*G + S^-1 * R * dA*G = S^-1 (z + dA* R) * G

But the x coordinate of P must match R and R is the x coordinate of k * G, which means that :

k*G = S^-1 (z + dA * R) *G

we can simplify by removing G which gives us :

k = S^-1(z + dA * R)

by inverting k and S, we get :

S = k^-1 (z + dA *R)

and that is the equation used to generate the signature.. so it matches, and that is the reason why you can verify the signature with it.

You can note that you need both ‘k‘ (random number) and ‘dA‘ (the private key) in order to calculate S, but you only need R and Qa (public key) to validate the signature. And since R=k*G and Qa = dA*G and because of the trap door function in the ECDSA point multiplication (explained above), we cannot calculate dA or k from knowing Qa and R, this makes the ECDSA algorithm secure, there is no way of finding the private keys, and there is no way of faking a signature without knowing the private key.

The ECDSA algorithm is used everywhere and has not been cracked and it is a vital part of most of today’s security.

Now I’ll discuss on how and why the ECDSA signatures that Sony  used in the PS3 were faulty and how it allowed us to gain access to their private key.

So you remember the equations needed to generate a signature.. R = k*G and S= k^-1(z + dA*R) mod p.. well this equation’s strength is in the fact that you have one equation with two unknowns (k and dA) so there is no way to determine either one of those. However, the security of the algorithm is based on its implementation and it’s important to make sure that ‘k‘ is randomly generated and that there is no way that someone can guess, calculate, or use a timing attack or any other type of attack in order to find the random value ‘k‘. But Sony made a huge mistake in their implementation, they used the same value for ‘k‘ everywhere, which means that if you have two signatures, both with the same k, then they will both have the same R value, and it means that you can calculate k using two S signatures of two files with hashes z and z’ and signatures S and S’ respectively :

S – S’ = k^-1 (z + dA*R) – k^-1 (z’ + da*R) = k^-1 (z + da*R – z’ -dA*R) = k^-1 (z – z’)

So : k = (z – z’) / (S – S’)

Once you know k, then the equation  for S because one equation with one unknown and is then easily resolved for dA :

dA = (S*k – z) / R

Once you know the private key dA, you can now sign your files and the PS3 will recognize it as an authentic file signed by Sony. This is why it’s important to make sure that the random number used for generating the signature is actually “cryptographically random”.  This is also the reason why it is impossible to have a custom firmware above 3.56, simply because since the 3.56 version, Sony have fixed their ECDSA algorithm implementation and used new keys for which it is impossible to find the private key.. if there was a way to find that key, then the security of every computer, website, system may be compromised since a lot of systems are relying on ECDSA for their security, and it is impossible to crack.

Finally! I hope this makes the whole algorithm clearer to many of you.. I know that this is still very complicated and hard to understand. I usually try to make things easy to understand for non technical people, but this algorithm is too complex to be able to explain in any simpler terms. After all that’s why I prefer to call it the MFET algorithm (Mathematics For Extra Terrestrials) 🙂

But if you are a developer or a mathematician or someone interested in learning about this because you want to help or simple gain knowledge, then I’m sure that this contains enough information for you to get started or to at least understand the concept behind this unknown beast called “ECDSA”.

That being said, I’d like to thank a few people who helped me understand all of this, one particularly who wishes to remain anonymous, as well as the many wikipedia pages I linked to throughout this article, and Avi Kak thanks to his paper explaining the mathematics behind ECDSA, and from which I have taken those graph images aboves.

P.s: In this article, I used ’20 bytes’ in my text to talk about the ECDSA signature because that’s what is usually used as it matches the SHA1 hash size of 20 bytes and that’s what the PS3 security uses, but the algorithm itself can be used with any size of numbers. There may be other inaccuracies in this article, but like I said, I’m not an expert, I just barely learned all of this in the past week.

# Status update on the PS3 4.0 HEN

Here’s a “quick” status update on the 4.00 HEN (Homebrew ENabler) for PS3.

Following my clarifications from almost 2 months ago here, there has been a lot of progress. We have not been slacking off, we’re a group of about 10 developers working together for the last 2 months, for sometimes 15 hours everyday in order to bring back homebrew support to the latest version of the PS3.

There are three major parts to the HEN, first, getting the packages to install on the PS3, that part is done, completed, tested, debugged, etc.. the second part is to get the apps to run, that one still has major issues… the last part is something I will not discuss for now (it’s a surprise) but it’s about 60% to 70% done (and it has nothing to do with peek&poke and has nothing to do with backup managers or anything like that. This is and will stay a piracy-free solution for the PS3).

Now, running apps is the biggest challenge that we’ve been working on for the past 2 months. As some of you know, if you’ve been following me on Twitter, we originally had hoped for Mathieulh to give us the “npdrm hash algorithm” that was necessary to run the apps, but he was reluctant, he kept doing his usual whore so people would kiss his feet (or something else) so he’d feel good about himself. But in the end, he said that he refuses to give us the needed “npdrm hash algorithm” to make it work… So what I initially thought would be “this will be released next week” ended up taking a lot more time than expected, and we’re still nowhere near ready to make it work.

Mathieulh kept tossing his usual “riddles” which he thinks are “very helpful for those who have a brain”, and which pisses off anyone who actually does… so he told us that the solution to all our problems was to look in appldr of the 3.56 firmware.. and that it was something lv1 was sending appldr which made the “hash check” verified or not… so we spent one month and a lot of sweat and after killing a few of our brain cells out of exhaustion, we finally concluded that it was all bullshit. After one month of reading assembly code and checking and double-checking our results, we finally were able to confirm that that hash algorithm was NOT in the 3.56 firmware like he told us (at all).

He said  that it was an AES OMAC hash, but after tracking all the uses of the OMAC functions in appldr, we found that it was not used for the “hash”…  he then said “oh, I meant HMAC“, so we do that again and again come up with the same conclusion, then we’re sure it’s not in appldr, and then he says “ah no, it’s in lv1“.. have a look for yourself to what he decided to write : http://www.ps3devwiki.com/index.php?title=Talk:KaKaRoTo_Kind_of_%C2%B4Jailbreak%C2%B4

That happened after the huge twitter fight I had with him for being his usual arrogant ass and claiming that he “shared” something (For your information, the code that he shared was not his own, I have proof of that too (can’t show you the proof because even if I don’t respect him, I gave him my word to not share what he gave me, and I respect my word) since he forgot to remove the name of the original developer from one of the files… also it was completely useless and was not used at all, just made me waste a day reading the crappy undocumented code. So why is he still trying to force his “advice” through these riddles even after we had that fight? Well to sabotage us and make us lose all those months of hard work!

So anyways, we had all accepted that Mathieulh was full of shit (we knew before, but we gave him the benefit of the doubt) and decided to continue working without considering any of his useless riddles. So we then tried to exploit/decrypt the 3.60+ firmware in order to get the algorithm from there.

Now, a few more weeks later, we finally have succeeded in fully understanding that missing piece from the “npdrm hash algorithm”,  and here it is for everyone’s pleasure with some prerequisite explanation :

A game on the PS3 is an executable file in a format called a “SELF“file (kind of like .exe on windows), those “self” files are cryptographically signed and encrypted.. For PSN games (games that do not run from a bluray disc), they need to have an additional security layer called “NPDRM”. So a “npdrm self” is basically an executable that is encrypted and signed, then re-encrypetd again with some additional information. On 3.55 and lower, we were able to encrypt and sign our own self files so they would look like original (made by sony) “npdrm self” files, and the PS3 would run them without problem. However, it wasn’t really like an original file.. a real NPDRM self file had some additional information that the PS3 simply ignored, it did not check for that information, so we could put anything in it, and it worked. Since the 3.60 version, the PS3 now also validates this additional information, so it can now differentiate between NPDRM self files created by sony and the ones that we create ourselves for homebrew. That’s the “npdrm hash algorithm” that we have been trying to figure out, because once we can duplicate that information in the proper manner, then the PS3 will again think that those files are authentic and will let us play them.

Another important point to explain, I said a few times that the files are “signed”.. this means that there is an “ECDSA signature” in the file which the PS3 can verify. The ECDSA signature is something that allows the PS3 to verify if the file has been modified or not.. it is easy to validate the signature, but impossible to create one without having access to the “private keys” (think of it like a real signature, you can see your dad’s signature and recognize it, but you can’t sign it exactly like him, and you can recognize if your brother tried to forge his signature). So how were we able to sign the self files that were properly authenticated on 3.55? That’s because this “ECDSA signature” is just a very complicated mathematical equation (my head still hurts trying to fully understand it, but I might blog about it in the future and try to explain it in simple terms if people are interested you can learn about it here), and one very important part of this mathematical equation is that you need to use a random number to generate the signature, but Sony had failed and used the same number every time.. by doing that, it was easy to just find the private key (which allows us to forge perfectly the signature) by doing some mathematical equation on it. So to summarize, a “signed file” is a file which is digitally signed with an “ECDSA signature” that cannot be forged, unless you have the “private key” for it, which is impossible to obtain usually, but we were able to obtain it because Sony failed in implementing it properly.

Now, back on topic.. so what is this missing “npdrm hash algorithm” that we need? well it turns out that the “npdrm self” has a second signature, so it’s a “encrypted and signed self file” with an additional layer of security (the NPDRM layer) which re-encrypts it and re-signs it again. That second signature was not verified in 3.55 and is now verified since the 3.60 version of the PS3 firmware.

One important thing to note is that Sony did NOT make the same mistake with this signature, they always used a random number, so it it technically impossible to figure out the private key for it. To be more exact, this is the exact same case as the .pkg packages you install on the PS3, you need to patch the firmware (making it cfw) so that those .pkg files can be installed, and that’s because the .pkg files are signed with an ECDSA signature for which no one was able to get the private key. That’s why we call them “pseudo-retail packages” or “unsigned packages”.

The signature on the NPDRM self file uses the exact same ECDSA curve and the same key as the one used in PS3 .pkg files, so no one has (or could have) the private key for it. What this means is that, even though we finally figured out the missing piece and we now know how the NPDRM self is built, we simply cannot duplicate it.

The reason we wasted 2 months on this is because Mathieulh lied by saying that he can do it.. remember when the 4.0 was out and I said “I can confirm that my method still works” then he also confirmed that his “npdrm hash algorithm” still works too? well he didn’t do anything to confirm, he just lied about it because there is no way that he could have verified it because he doesn’t have the private key.

I said I will provide proof of the lies that Mathieulh gave us, so here they are : he said it’s in 3.56, that was a lie, he said it’s an AES OMAC, that was a lie,  he said it’s an HMAC, that was a lie, he said it’s in appldr, that was a lie, he said it’s in lv1, that was a lie, he said that he can do it, that was a lie, he said that “it takes one hour to figure it out if you have a brain”, that was a lie, he said that he verified it to work on 4.0, that was a lie, he said that he had the algorithm/keys, that was a lie, he said that once we know the algorithm used, we can reproduce it, that was a lie, he kept referring to it as “the hash”, that was wrong. The proof ? It’s an ECDSA signature, it’s not a hash (two very different terms for different things), it was verified by vsh.self, it was not in lv2, or lv1, or appldr, and the private key is unaccessible, so there is no way he could build his own npdrm self files. Now you know the real reason why he refused to “share” what he had.. it’s because he didn’t have it…

So why do all this? was it because his arrogance didn’t allow him to admit not knowing something? or was it because he wanted to make us lose all this time? To me, it looks like pure sabotage, it was misleading information to steer us away from the real part of the code that holds the solution…. That is of course, if we are kind enough to assume that he knew what/where it was in the first place.  In the end, he wasn’t smart enough to only lie about things that we could not verify.. now we know (we always knew, but now we have proof to back it) that he’s a liar, and I do not think that anyone will believe his lies anymore.

Enough talking about liars and drama queens, back to the 4.0 HEN solution… so what next? well, we now know that we can’t sign the file, so we can’t run our apps on 3.60+ (it can work on 3.56 though). What we will do is look for a different way, a completely new exploit that would allow the files we install to actual run on the PS3. We will also be looking for possible “signature collisions” and for that we will need the help of the community, hopefully there is a collision (same random number used twice) which will allow us to calculate the private key, and if that happens, then we can move forward with a release.

When will the “jailbreak” be released? If I knew, I’d tell you, but I don’t know.. I would have said in last november, then december, then before christmas, then before new year, etc… but as you can see, it’s impossible to predict what we will find.. we might get lucky and have it ready in a couple of days, or we may not and it will not be ready for another couple of months.. so all you need to do is : BE PATIENT (and please stop asking me about an estimated release date)!

I would like to thank the team who helped on this task for all this time and who never got discouraged, and I’d like to thank an anonymous contributor who recently joined us and who was instrumental in figuring it all out. We all believe that freedom starts with knowledge, and that knowledge should be open and available to all, that is why we are sharing this information with the world. We got the confirmation (by finding the public key used and verifying the signatures) yesterday and since sharing this information will not help Sony in any way to block our efforts in a future release, we have decided to share it with you.  We believe in transparency, we believe in openness, we believe in a free world, and we want you to be part of it.

If you want to know more about this ECDSA signature algorithm, I tried to explain it in a blog post here, also, you can read this interesting paper that explains it in detail, and you can also watch Team Fail0verflow’s CCC presentation that first explained Sony’s mistake in their implementation, which made custom firmwares possible.

KaKaRoTo

# Clarifications about 3.73 (and 4.0) “jailbreak”

Update:
I tested the jailbreak on the latest firmware 4.0 since it was released and I can confirm that it still works.

Hi all,

I’ve been flooded with questions on twitter and I’ve read many posts on news sites and  I’ve seen some stuff being said on IRC and I thought I needed to clarify a few things…

First of all, I didn’t expect to see my tweet front paged on all ps3 hacking news sites.. although I should have expected it.. but anyways, the “jailbreak” is not ready to be used, at all. I only tweeted that because I was excited having it working and I wanted to share my excitement with everyone. But this is a bit equivalent to the day I released that create_cfw.sh script that created the very first CFW/MFW but it still took a couple of months before a real, easy, multiplatform and fully fledged solution was released : PS3MFW.

We are currently at the same state, I have the proof of concept, it works, but a solution that anyone can use where they just click a button and their PS3 gets jailbroken is still far from ready.

I’ve seen people say (and even write it in their front page news) that I’ll release it in two weeks after I come back from vacation. That is not true and I never said that. What I said was that for the next 2 weeks, the project is on hold until I get back.. but when I get back, then I will continue working on it, and it will then take some more time before it’s ready and released.

Some asked if it’s based on what gitbrew was doing/suggesting or if I used someone else’s exploit or work. No, this solution is my own idea and 100% my own implementation. However, the actual solution for the full jailbreak involves some components on which I will not work, and I expect/hope that someone else will provide the solution for that.

Some speculated it might be what I spoke about back in March which I later said I wasn’t pursuing by lack of motivation.. and yes, you are right. The same hack I had in March is still valid today, I told a few people about it (rms, Mathieulh, an0nym0us, and a couple more), but no one was interested in pursuing it further and actually exploiting that flaw (mainly because it requires a huge amount of work to get a proof of concept working). 10 days ago (I started on the 11th), I got bored and decided to start poking at it again, and yesterday (a lot faster than I thought it would take), I got my first pkg installed on 3.73 firmware.

On twitter, I said “do not update if you are on 3.55”, I said that in response to someone who said he would update.  Because of that, people speculated that you need to be on 3.55 first, and then install something before doing the upgrade. No, that’s not it, that would be useless. The purpose of my solution is to jailbreak a ps3 that is already on 3.73 firmware and which had never been jailbroken before. I told people not to update because, first of all, it’s not yet ready, and second of all, the 3.55 firmware gives you a lot more possibilities than what can be achieved on 3.73.

So what is this jailbreak? I won’t say because I don’t want Sony to block it in a firmware update (and yes, they potentially could) before it’s even released (and yes, I will release it when it’s ready). But I will explain this to you : in order to run your homebrew apps, you need two things. First, to be able to install them on the ps3, and second to be able to run it once installed. I did only one of these two things.

Some may say it’s not a real jailbreak, but the way I see it, there are three ‘jails’ on the ps3, I broke the first one which prevents you from installing anything, so now you can install your .pkg, great, but it won’t run, that’s the second jail. The third jail is being able to modify the firmware (peek&poke).

The second jail (running apps) is something that can be done, but it’s not my area of expertise (npdrm algo), so I will not be working on that. I am waiting for someone else to achieve it (some have succeeded but do not wish to release it, at least not for now) then I will release.

The third jail (modifying the firmware) is not possible with my method, this means that you will  not have a “CFW”, you will run your homebrew applications and games on an official firmware. This also means that without peek&poke support, none of the backup managers will work. So, again, my solution is piracy-free, and as always, I do not plan on working on a way to enable piracy (or even legal backups).

Overall, the purpose will be to allow people who are on 3.73 firmware to enjoy the homebrew games that were released, to play a bit with Eskiss, and to use Showtime for playing their movies. This should be more than enough for everyone.

Finally, I will conclude by replying to another question I received : Do you accept donations? The answer is yes. I do accept donations but I do not seek them out. I will include a donate button to the bottom of this post, so if anyone wishes to donate, they can do so, however, I want to make it clear that whether or not you donate does not and will not affect in any way, the release, or the progress of the work I’m doing. If you donate, you would do it as a sign of appreciation of my efforts, and not in exchange of any favors or anything crazy like that.

That’s about it I think… If you have any more questions, please refrain from asking them, I get enough as it is already.. I also said everything I needed to say and I don’t want to give any more information than that (for now).

KaKaRoTo

# PS3: First ‘Custom Firmware’ now working!

Update: I’ve now fixed the issue about the missing game data icons. PS3-Hacks.com has a nice step-by-step tutorials and they posted the PUP files.

Update 2: DO NOT try to install this from the service mode, it might brick your console, install it normally from the normal menu or the recovery menu.

Great news!

Thanks to the tools made by the fail0verflow team (and thanks to sven in particular for his work on the pkg/unpkg tools), the first “Custom Firmware” is now available for the PS3!

I see a lot of questions coming up really fast on my Twitter account, so here are the basic things you need to know :

Because of legal/copyright issues, I will not provide the custom firmware to anyone, however, I’ve made available all the tools necessary to transform an Official firmware update, into a custom one, just grab my ps3utils repository from github, compile, then run :

`./create_cfw.sh PS3UPDATE.PUP CFW.PUP`

This will take the official firmware, unpack it, modify it, then repack it correctly (requires you to install ps3tools).

This should work on Linux and Mac for now, but I’m sure others will do it for the masses and illegally release those files somewhere.

The advantage here is that you can do it for any firmware, if you want to keep version 3.41, then give it the 3.41 update, if you are on 3.55 already and can’t downgrade, then run the script on the official 3.55 firmware and it will create a modified 3.55 firmware.

You can put the file in a USB drive under the filename “PS3/UPDATE/PS3UPDAT.PUP” and then go to system update in the XMB, and it will allow you to install the update (even if you’re already on 3.55).

People are asking what are the features of this firmware, it’s simple, all it does is to add those “Install Package Files” options to the Game section of the XMB. It doesn’t do anything else!

This firmware will not allow you to run the currently available homebrew application. Once the homebrew developers re-package their files in a ‘retail’ .pkg format with signed executable, then it will work (this should be coming soon thanks to the work of the fail0verflow team).

Since the kernel is left unmodified, this means that this custom firmware is really meant for future homebrew installation, and it will not allow piracy. I plan on keeping it that way.

This is just the first attempt at custom firmware, and it only contains a minor modification to allow you to install pkg files directly, eventually we’ll get some more options added to it in the future. This is just starting to get interesting!

p.s: Thanks to everyone who helped make this possible!

Enjoy! 🙂
KaKaRoTo

Hi all,

I see a lot of people asking me some questions and I notice a lot of ignorance in the net about the different payload and the latest PL3 payload. So I want to make things clear..
First of all, people should stop talking/requesting/using the hermes v3 payload, I don’t like his work, and the payload is not good, it might crash the system in some cases, it’s not written properly, and hermes doesn’t even seem to understand how git works.
Also, PL3 already includes (for some time now) all the good stuff from hermes, it already supports installing game updates, or running games without a disc, anything else that Hermes added is useless and dangerous could crash in some situations (requiring a reboot).

Some might have seen my tweets about my new payload being released, and many are asking me what is the difference between my payload and what is already available.
PL3 doesn’t support syscall 36 anymore, for multiple reasons, first, it was bad code, it was mapping a path to a single hardcoded value (/dev_bdvd or /app_home or /dev_flash or whatever is hardcoded in the payload) which means that, since we (the PSGroove and PSFreedom developers) don’t want to support running backups, all the official payloads weren’t working with the backup manager without being patched first. The syscall 35 I added in my payload is more generic though, it is the proper way of doing things. You can map any path to another other new path, the prototype looks like this :

`  syscall_35 (char *old_path, char *new_path);`

This means that the payload doesn’t need to have a hardcoded /dev_bdvd path in it, or have extra code for mapping /app_home to something else.. or having syscall 36 change both /dev_bdvd and /app_home breaking homebrew when using a discless mode with a backup manager. You also don’t need a special payload to run the ‘firmware usb loader’.. It all just works because the choice of the path mapping is given to the homebrew applications themselves. This means that the backup managers will just map /dev_bdvd to what they want and they will work by default on my payload, there will be no need for a patched version of the payload to make them work.
This however means that the backup managers that depend on syscall 36 will stop working. For now Gaia Manager is the only backup manager available that is compatible with my payload. But I’m sure more will be ported to use syscall 35.
People need to understand that this new syscall 35 has to become the new standard, this is what all the payloads should use, nothing else, and this is what everyone should start using, not the old, crappy, backup-manager specific, PSJailbreak written, syscall 36.

We need to have some form of standardization for all these payloads, I’m tired of seeing about 100 different payloads floating on the internet, it doesn’t make sense. I always believed in a single payload that works for everyone, and that’s why I created PL3, that’s why it’s a project independent of PSFreedom (and PSGroove has been ported to it) and that’s where all the efforts should go. Also, by using PL3, you automatically gain support, and all the same features, for whatever previous firmwares PL3 already supports (3.01, 3.10, 3.15 and 3.41).

I have just recently seen this new payload that everyone is so happy about that includes “all the good things from 3 worlds”, the one created by Rancid, which includes the stuff from hermes, waninkoko and Mathieulh… and I was shocked to see how much people were happy about this.. people don’t really seem to understand that this wasn’t necessary at all? PL3 has had all those patches for a while now, so why did Rancid even bother making this payload that includes the patches from hermes, waninkoko and Mathieulh? Why would you spend your time doing something that already is available!

This blog post is meant to stop all this ignorance and let people know that they don’t need to look for a special payload, just use PL3 and you’ll get everything you need. It is also meant to explain to everyone what is different about my payload.

On a side, I have received a P3Hub device, kindly donated to me by the people from r4king.com, and I have now tried PSGroove for the first time! I’ve also created a fork of jevinskie’s port of PSGroove which is now improved and updated to support the latest PL3 version. This means that the PL3 payload is available for everyone, those using PSFreedom as well as those using PSGroove, so there is no excuse now on not using it or relying on badly written payloads developed by people who barely know how to code (yes, using winrar instead of git is a good indication of that).

Update: I forgot to rant about peek&poke!!! So let’s do it now… well, the default payload in PL3 has peek and poke disabled, and for a simple reason : Nobody needs them! and more importantly they are misued! I’ve look at the code of the different backup managers, and it looks like all of them use poke to patch the memory to ‘fix something’ because they think that it’s their job to do it.. no it’s not! If you have a working patch, then submit it to PL3 and if people complain, tell them “use the proper payload”, don’t try to take advantage of peek&poke to go and modify the kernel’s instructions! The reason is simple.. you are a homebrew app that does X, then do X, leave the kernel patching to the payloads! Just as PL3 doesn’t map /dev_bdvd to /dev_usb000/I.Like.This.Game/ and locks it out! Also, I’m on firmware 3.15, so when you decide to poke and patch the kernel with a hardcoded offset, you’re just screwing up my kernel because the offset is firmware dependent! it’s not the same depending on the firmware you use, and I don’t want you playing with it. So.. peek&poke are really not useful to anybody, they are not even available on a normal linux pc, so why would you want them in your default payload, right?! The only people who should use a payload with those syscalls enabled are real developers, people who want to analyze and patch the kernel on the fly while they are doing some development of, maybe, a kernel driver! That’s it. Anyways, that’s enough ranting from me for today!

P.s: In my branch of PSGroove, I wrote a script that build the .hex file for every supported device (from the README) for every supported firmware. You can find all the hex files here : PSGroove+PL3 hex files

Update: Thanks to evilsperm, I’ve updated the archive with hex files for these devices : Blackcat, Xplain, Olimex, UsbTinyMkII, Bentio and OpenKubus.
Update 2: Some people reported crashes with my payload when running backups with installed updates. I figured out the cause and fixed it now in git. The hex files above have also been updated

KaKaRoTo

# PSFreedom now supports firmware 3.01, 3.10 and 3.15

Hi,

I’ve got some great news for those of you who have not updated your PS3 firmware! I have just succeeded in adding Firmware 3.01 support into PSFreedom. I’ve pushed the latest code to github and you can now download the source and compile PSFreedom for 3.01.
For now, you will need to edit config.h and change the FIRMWARE_3_41 into FIRMWARE_3_01, then recompile. However, I will soon add support for dynamically choosing the target firmware version by simply doing a :
echo 3.01 > /proc/psfreedom/fw_version

I will soon add support for firmware 3.10 and 3.15, so be patient, and you will be rewarded. I would like to thank Klutsh as well as Philippe Hug who helped me achieve this port to 3.01.
The new payload changes are available in the PL3 github and any project/port that is also using PL3 should automatically gain support for the 3.01 firmware.
You will also be able to enjoy some new ‘tools’ in PL3 that will allow you to dump the LV2 kernel as well as the decrypted ELF files of the XMB and other configuration files it uses. The ethernet dumping is also now compatible with PS3 Slim models.

Update:
Philhug and I have worked together recently to make PL3 compatible with 3.15, and it is now done, working and ready for you to use. I have just pushed the latest changes to github, so just update both PSFreedom and PL3, and define FIRMWARE_3_15 in PSFreedom’s config.h and recompile. You will then be able to enjoy your unrestricted PS3 on 3.15 firmwares. Enjoy!

Update 2:
I have just added support for firmware 3.10 to PL3. You can get it by upgrading to the latest git version of PL3. There are however some changes in there that might break PSFreedom, so wait until I update PSFreedom tomorrow to be compatible with the latest PL3 changes!
I have also added a HOWTO file that explains the steps required to port PSFreedom to an exploitable firmware. Enjoy

I would like to thank, again, those who have donated. For the others, you can still donate, if you appreciate the work I’ve done.

Enjoy!
KaKaRoTo

# PS3: Introducing PL3 and 3.01 firmware news

Hi,

I’ll announce two things, first, let’s talk about PL3.. PL3 is a new project I started in order to have a common repository of payloads that can be used by any ‘jailbreak’  implementation. I got tired of copying payloads from PSGroove, and I had some nice changes in mine that I thought the PSGroove project could benefit from, so I thought I’d create a single repository that both projects, PSFreedom and PSGroove (or any other similar projects) could use.

You can find it in github, so don’t hesitate to submodule it and use it.

Second important news… I’ve bought a new PS3 just for homebrew. Thanks to all who donated money so I can buy it (I didn’t get enough donations to pay for it, but enough to help me). I bought this PS3 used and it came with firmware 3.01! This is good and bad news : I can’t use PSFreedom to jailbreak it, so i’ve put on hold any improvements for it, however, it will allow me to actually port PSFreedom to older firmwares! My plan is to get the jailbreak working on 3.01, then move on to 3.10 and 3.15 (depending on how hard it is, i might skip 3.10).

Another good news is that after 4 days of  work, I was finally able to dump the LV2 memory from the 3.01 firmware, and now all that remains is to find the right offsets to patch, and port PSFreedom to 3.01, so all those who are still using this firmware version, you will soon be able to jailbreak it! Once I’m done with that, I’ll try to do the same with the 3.10/3.15 firmware versions!

To dump LV2, I used a trick and algorithms found by marcan42, so big thanks goes to him, as well as many other people who helped me out, RichDevX and Aaron in particular. I used RichDevX’s idea of ignoring the JIG and bruteforcing the address in which the port1 descriptor gets stored until I get a hit, then use that payload to dump lv2, then find the right JIG offset for that particular firmware from the dump. Marcan’s trick was to send the data through the ethernet cable by using LV1 only hypercalls, and it worked!

Now the latest git version of PL3 has a new ‘dump_lv2’ payload which you can use, it is firmware independent, and only uses LV1 hypercalls, so it should just work… It will dump all the lv2 memory through ethernet, so fire up wireshark, save the dump to a .pcap file, and use the tool in PL3/tools to extract the memory dump from the .pcap file.

In other news, I will soon upload to Ps3utils an .idc script that will search and find the syscall table, and correctly resolve all of its functions and name them properly.. maybe even have it automatically find all functions of a dump in order to save time creating procs in IDA. I’ll let you know once I’m done with it.

KaKaRoTo

# PS3: Registry viewer and PDB generator

Hi all,

Here’s a quick post to share these small tools I wrote.

First, there’s  a .pdb file generator, it’s useful to install demos, I wrote this 6 days ago, but didn’t want to release it, I didn’t want people to use it to pirate PSN games, but it turns out it only works for demos… Even if it installs full retail games, they won’t run because you still need a license to run them. Also, two other people released similar tools (but much better, with more customization, good UIs, etc..) so I don’t need to keep this to myself anymore!

Second is a registry viewer! The /dev_flash2/etc/xRegistry.sys file contains a lot of interesting stuff, mostly your user settings, but it also contains some settings that you cannot change through the XMB (like QAMode or debugSoftwareUpdate, etc..). The file format is quite weird, SKFU attempted to reverse engineer it but didn’t really succeed, but thanks to Matsy who figured out how to link the keys with their values, I was able to understand the file format (most of it anyways) and write this app.  It’s just a crappy tcl/tk script that I wrote real quick! I’m really bad at UIs so I thought I’d put a quick and dirty tcl/tk script to build the UI for it.. it’s not much, it doesn’t allow you to change values, so don’t pay it much attention. Matsy is working on building a QT application to allow you to view and edit the registry values, so be patient, in the meantime, you can use this simple viewer to check out the contents of the file!

You can grab these tools (and possibly other stuff I might write in the future) from my new git repository at : http://github.com/kakaroto/ps3utils. They are both released under the GPL license.

On a side note, I just upgraded to firmware 3.42, so I’ll be taking a bit less active from the ps3 hacking scene for a little while, until I get enough money to buy a new (used actually) PS3. I also want to thank everyone who donated so far, so… thank you 🙂

KaKaRoTo

# PSFreedom news, homebrew and donations

Hi all,

I suppose many people are now following my blog and you’re all eager to learn more about the latest PSFreedom news!

Important things first : Please stop asking me if PSFreedom will work on your phone, NO it will not work on any Symbian phones and it won’t work on iPhones (see next paragraph though). Stop asking and just accept that and buy yourself a Teensy board or an AT90USB microcontroller or similar and install PSGroove on it, then you’ll have your own dedicated dongle.

Now that that’s out of the way, let’s get back to business! I told you last time that NTAuthority almost had the iPhoneLinux port working, well the good news is that it does indeed work and it’s been released! Please read the instructions to get it installed from the wiki. Note however that it only works on iPod Touch 1G, iPhone 2G and iPhone 3G, it will not work on iPhone 3GS or 4G or any other iPod… so please don’t even ask about it!!!!

In similar news, we’ve added support for many new Android devices, the list almost reaches 40 models, and about 25 unique devices are now PSFreedom compatible! Again, you can see the whole list of supported devices in the wiki. I just want to make one thing clear : I made PSFreedom for the N800/N810/N900 phones, but I didn’t port it to android. Although I helped some developers port PSFreedom to new USB controllers, I didn’t port or compile any build of PSFreedom for any Android device, so your thanks should go to those responsible for doing it. This is a community effort and those from the community who helped this project should receive our thanks!

Now, what you’ve been waiting for, what’s new in the  PS3 scene, well, many things. First, I’ve recently joined the group of Mathieulh and I’ve been working with them to figure out how the kernel and payload works! I’ve also recently created a new branch in git for writing custom assembly for the payloads instead of using the hardcoded binary blob from PSJailbreak. I’ve cleaned up the payload used by PSJailbreak as well as documented it so others can read it and better understand how it works. The reverse engineering and information has been provided by the group of Mathieulh as well as some of my own reverse engineering work. You can find the ASM payload file here. AerialX from the PSGroove team is also working on cool payloads so you should check out his git repository too!

Also, Matsy and I have reverse engineered the xRegistry.sys file format and are now able to modify the XMB registry in order to enable new features (QA mode, debug options, etc..), and we’ll be working in the next few days on making a homebrew application that would allow you to change these settings safely.

Now for the sad news.. I will be forced to update my PS3 system very soon, for multiple reasons.. First, I’m getting the PS Move tomorrow and I really want to buy Tumble (PSN game) which looks like an awesome game and I can’t do that if I don’t upgrade my PS3 since PSN is locked for firmware 3.41. I also am a PSN+ subscriber and not being able to connect to PSN and enjoy the content I paid for is absurd and it feels like it’s wasting those 50\$ I paid for PSN+. Finally, I had to reformat (and restore from backup, Thank God) my PS3 hardrive yesterday because as I was testing the payloads, I kept crashing the PS3 and I kept shutting it down the hard way which seemed to have corrupted my hard drive. After I restored my backup, all my content is there, but when I try to launch a game it says “To access this content, you must active this system. Go to ‘Playstation Network->Account Management’ to activate this system”, which I cannot do without connecting to PSN. This basically means that the 50+ games that I have bought on PSN are now inaccessible to me. So for all these reasons, I have chosen to update my PS3 to the latest firmware version.

As you all know by now, Sony has fixed the vulnerability we’re using to run homebrew in the latest firmware update, which means that once I update, I won’t be able to use PSFreedom or run homebrew applications anymore. This means that I won’t be able to work anymore on homebrew and custom payloads.. I could try to write something but I won’t be able to use it or test it, so the motivation will not be the same. For that, I’m asking you, those of you who used and enjoyed PSFreedom and are grateful for it or those who would like to see more of my work in the future, that you please donate a little something. Your donation will be used in order to buy a new PS3 that will be used only for homebrew and development. Note that I am not requesting you to donate, you have no obligations to do so and I’m not promising you anything either in exchange for a donation. Also note that, as stated earlier, I do not make ports of PSFreedom to new devices/phones, so don’t hope or expect me to make it work for your phone because you donated something. So only donate to me if you are grateful for everything I’ve done so far and you want to show your appreciation. If you decide to donate to me, then thank you very much! Your donations are very much appreciated and they might allow me to release something cool and useful to the PS3 homebrew scene in the future (but I can’t guarantee anything to anyone of course).

So if you want to donate some money, just click on the Donate button below! If you want to donate some hardware (a PS3 maybe, or a Teensy board or anything), contact me and let me know.

Thank you all for your support!
KaKaRoTo

# PSFreedom 1.0 and lots of news!

Hi all,

I’ve wanted to post about PSFreedom for the last 4 days now but everytime there’s something that prevents me from doing so.. there is so much happening that it’s hard to keep up and I’ve been overwhelmed by the reaction!

PSFreedom has seen a tremendous success, it’s been featured on multiple news sites  including Engadget, we’ve had a huge number of ‘fans’ (more like leechers:p) popping up on the newly created IRC channel (#PSFreedom @ irc.freenode.net). Someone (devz3ro) donated a domain and web hosting for our new http://psfreedom.com/wiki website. The number of people who have worked hard to create a beautiful and well organized wiki to keep track of all the ports. The number of  people who have tried (and many succeeded) to port PSFreedom to so many different devices and those who sent me pull requests on github as well as those who simply read my code and reviewed it and decided to comment on my commits so I can improve the code.

Anyways, it has been a tremendous success, real community work and I want to thank personally everyone involved, everyone who helped, whether it be with a small or a big contribution to the project.

Now about the news, I have quite a few… first, a lot of people are asking me how to get this working on the N800 and N810! Well, it’s been working for a few days now, but the mass storage driver was conflicting and made the controller unstable. However, today, drizztbsd contributed a patch that fixes this issue (by killing hald-addon-usb) without modifying any file from your system, so enabling the exploit on the N800, N810 and N900 is all a matter of running the ./psfreedom-enable-maemo.sh script! There is also an easy to use graphical application that should be released today by MohammadAG and a special thank you to Bash who also contributed the PSFreedom logo.

I have also received a ton of requests from people to port this to the iPhone and/or one of their Symbian devices… my answer to that is : RTFM!! In other words, no it is simply *impossible*. It can only be ported to other Linux devices. However, we are close to having it work with IphoneLinux (actually, I just got confirmation a few seconds ago that it’s finally working) as NTAuthority spent countless hours porting it and fixing the controller’s incomplete driver in order to make this work. Once his port is finished, and stable, he will make it available to everyone, so stay tuned and follow the Device compatibility list on the wiki!

Other good news, PSFreedom has been ported to a huge amount of devices already, and the list keeps growing every day! We currently support and have working binaries for not only the N800/N810/N900 but also the Palm Pre, Archos 5 (Generation 6), Archos 5 IMT (Generation 7), as well as, thanks to the work of DocMon in porting PSFreedom to the MSM72K controller, The HTC Desire (Bravo), Nexus One, HTC Dream (G1), HTC Sapphire (HTC Magic 32A/32B), HTC HD2 (running Android), HTC Wildfire and I’ve received confirmation a few minutes ago that it’s been successfully ported to the HTC Evo as well as HTC Diamond. Also, waninkoko recently ported PSFreedom to work on the Dingoo open game console.

For the future, you can expect a lot more devices to be supported, like the iPhone/iPod (Through iPhoneLinux only) as well as the Gp2x Wiz game console, and the huge list of compatible devices available in our wiki. Also note that running the PSFreedom on an Android device isn’t as easy as it is on the N900, you need to flash some nandroid thing, then flash a custom kernel (because Android’s kernel sucks) then run PSFreedom in that environment, then run Nandroid again to restore your system… It is quite complicated but many people are working on making it much simpler to do, the famous AmonRA contacted me and said he started working on building a PSFreedom-compatible recovery image with a menu item to enable/disable the PSFreedom functionality.

There is one last  important bit of news I want to share with you : PSFreedom 1.0 has been released (more like tagged) and it adds support for many devices, the Makefile allows you to build for a specific platform by specifying it as a target, ‘make N900’ or ‘make Desire’ or ‘make Dingoo’ will build it for your needs with the right configuration. Also more importantly, this version will allow you to customize which payload or shellcode you want to send to your PS3 during the exploit. Many people have requested a version that allows you to play backups, while the original release of PSFreedom didn’t allow that, it quickly got patched to allow the backup manager to work. The new release of the PSGroove yesterday also adds 2 system calls that allows user space application to modify the GameOS kernel, and that meant a new payload is available for developers. This version of PSFreedom provides all these payloads and you can choose which one to set by simply copying it to /proc/psfreedom/payload once the module has been loaded. The same also applies to the shellcode.

That’s it for now, there are a ton of other news I’d like to share, but this post is long enough and I’d like to keep some surprises for next time!

Thanks to all for your support!

KaKaRoTo